why did the rebellion of upper canada happen

[22], Among the more than 150 lawsuits they launched that year, the Bank of Upper Canada, sued Sheldon, Dutcher & Co., a foundry and Toronto's largest employer with over 80 employees in late 1836, bankrupting the company. His temperament and conviction led him to the point where he not only advocated armed rebellion against the colonial government but led it. Although many rebels, including Duncombe, had fled prior to the upcoming battle due to hearing about the failure of Mackenzie in Toronto and general disorganization, there were still some present in Scotland, Ontario and MacNab commenced his attack on Scotland on December 14, causing the remaining rebels to flee after only a few shots were fired. The rebels refused to march until daylight. [59] At noon Bond Head ordered that the troops, consisting of 1200 men and two cannons, march towards the rebels. Fitzgibbon's call to arm a militia was also denied and he refused an armed guard at the Government's House and City Hall. The Act of Union was Relations between the appointed Legislative Council and the elected Legislative Assembly became increasingly strained in the years after the war, over issues of immigration, taxation, banking and land speculation. Relevance. [25], Mackenzie gathered reformers on July 28 and 31, 1837 to discuss their grievances with the government. by Marianne Brandis. [41], Rolph tried to warn Mackenzie about the warrant for his arrest but could not find him so delivered the message to Lount instead. Thus, responsible government became a "pragmatic" policy of alleviating local abuses, rather than a revolutionary anti-colonial moment. The lower Canadian rebels would have their crops and fields burned. His report in 1839 differentiated between the rebellions in Upper and Lower Canada. These policies favoured r… The Upper Canada Rebellion was, along with the Patriotes Rebellion in Lower Canada, a rebellion against the colonial government in 1837 and 1838.Collectively they are also known as the Rebellion of 1837, while the Patriotes Rebellion is also called the Lower Canada Rebellion.. Thanks for contributing to The Canadian Encyclopedia. Parliament also sent Lord Durham to become Governor-in-Chief of the British North American colonies,[70] so that Arthur reported to Durham. Our team will be reviewing your submission and get back to you with any further questions. The Compact dominated the running of the government. The Upper Canada Rebellion also ended quite unsuccessful. The Fenian Raids happened while Canada was slowly moving towards Confederation. [49] Meanwhile, Bond Head proposed a negotiating session with rebel leaders to Marshall Spring Bidwell, who declined. Murray, and Barry Wright (2 vol 1996, 2002), This page was last edited on 2 January 2021, at 01:59. Nothing brings Canadians together like the threat of annexation by the United States. The 1837 rebellion in Upper Canada was a less violent, more limited affair than the insurrection that same year in neighbouring Lower Canada, although its leaders, including William Lyon Mackenzie, were no less serious in their demands for democratic reform, and an end to the rule of a privileged oligarchy. "Rebellion in Upper Canada". In Lower Canada many French habitants were suffering from famine and the accumulation of huge debts due to poor harvests. The loyalist forces included 120 Black soldiers under the command of Colonel Samuel Jarvis. This is particularly true for the rebellion in Upper Canada. [31] Rolph convinced Morrison to support the rebellion but they also told Mackenzie to get confirmation of support from rural communities. [57] His advice was rejected, so he proposed entrenching and defending their position at the tavern. Mackenzie also attacked other travellers and robbed them or questioned them about the revolt. Upon receiving Rolph's message Lount marched a group of rebels into Toronto for December 4. [30], The next day Mackenzie convinced John Rolph that a rebellion could be successful and happen without anyone being killed. For example, William Allan "was an executive councillor, a legislative councillor, President of the Toronto and Lake Huron Railroad, Governor of the British American Fire and Life Assurance Company and President of the Board of Trade. As part of this satire, he published a draft republican constitution for the State of Upper Canada that closely resembled the objectives in the constitution of the Canadian Alliance Society in 1834. The Rebellion was, rather, the unintended consequence of a sophisticated political movement that copied the organizational forms of the British Reform movement. The records in the 1837 Rebellion Losses of Upper Canada are organized in this document by District. The rebellions in both Upper and Lower Canada led directly to the appointment of Lord Durham and The disapproval of this was strongest among the so-called late Loyalists and their descendants. [50] Rolph and Robert Baldwin met the rebel troops at Gallows Hill and stated the government's proposal of full amnesty to the rebels if they dispersed immediately. The 1837 rebellion in Upper Canada was a less violent, more limited than Lower Canada rebellion, although its leaders,William Lyon Mackenzie, was no less serious in their demands for reform, and an end to the rule of a oligarchy. The more extreme elements in the Reform movement then began to mobilize under the leadership of William Lyon Mackenzie. The Upper Canadian Rebellion was an unsuccessful uprising in Upper Canada against the Family Compact. [72] A group of rebels escaped their prison at Fort Henry and travelled to the United States. They agreed to send sixty men to the Don Bridge to divert government troops. The rebellion led directly to Lord Durham's Report on the Affairs of British North America, and to The British North America Act, 1840, which partially reformed the British provinces into a unitary system, leading to the formation of Canada as a nation in 1867. passed in 1840. The Upper Canada Rebellion was largely defeated shortly after it began, although resistance lingered until 1838. He also entered into a working relationship with reformers in Lower Canada. The lower Canadian rebels would have their crops and fields burned. Their objective was to engage a smaller force of armed government loyalists and militia. The impact of the Upper Canadian insurgency is equally debatable. Prescott in November and at Windsor in early December. (See also: Battle of Windmill.) After the War of 1812, there was growing discontent in Upper Canada with the elite clique Only two of the original rebels, Samuel Lount and Peter Matthews, were executed by the Though poorly organized and easily crushed, the raids kept the border in a constant state of turmoil. They were the leading members of the administration: executive councillors, legislative councillors, senior officials and some members of the judiciary. and  It had been supplying Mackenzie’s forces and was set adrift over the falls. at the front had been killed. Asked by Wiki User. Governor, ... which had been concentrated in Lower Canada to deal with the crisis. William Lyon Mackenzie was a fiery and vocal critic of the Upper Canadian system in the 1820's and 30's. [16] The Reform-dominated Assembly responded by refusing to pass the money bill, which halted the payment of salaries and pensions to many government workers. The Upper Canada Rebellion was a lost attempt for change, which, at first, just resulted in severe punishment, such as death, flogging, hanging, and à  transportationà  , for the rebels. In, M.S. On 5 December, a motley assortment of 500 to 700 rebels bearing only hunting rifles, staves and pitchforks, marched south on Yonge Street. These grievances breathed life into the nascent  As a result, the rebels would either have a death penalty or be transported to Bermuda/ Australia for 7 years. While these rebellions differed in that they also struggled for republicanism, they were inspired by similar social problems stemming from poorly regulated oligarchies, and sought the same democratic ideals, which were also shared by the United Kingdom's Chartists.[1][2][3]. [63] The government continued their march and at Montgomery's Tavern a cannon shot into the dining room window. There was also popular opposition to land-granting practices. During 1838, the rebels continued to send expeditions across the border. This was worsened in Upper Canada by bad wheat harvests in 1836 and farmers were unable to pay their debts. The causes of the rebellion in Upper Canada are unique and quite different from Lower Canada. Causes of the Lount encouraged some riflemen to return fire before realising that the enemy had left the battlefield. There is continuing debate about who was responsible for the rebellion and the degree of popular support it enjoyed. Its members won control of the elected Legislative Assembly in 1828 and again in 1834. To begin with, the rebellion in Upper Canada failed miserably because of the lack of military experience from the rebels, and, as a result, it wasnà  t very threathening. The impact did not happen immediately as intended though. [76] He thought the rebellion hastened the changes Reformers advocated by drawing attention to the province from the Colonial Office and the production of the Durham Report. He persuaded his more radical followers to draft a republican constitution for Upper Canada modelled on that of the United States. This caused a recession in Upper Canada. In, Buckner, Phillip A. , "Rebellion in Upper Canada". He proclaimed a republic of Upper Canada. Two years later, Upper and Lower Canada were unified. Still smarting from his mother’s recent death and his father’s and stepmother’s apparent eagerness to be rid of him, Adam must now contend with Uncle Ted’s wild dreams of easy wealth in Upper Canada. [67] The victorious Tory supporters burned homes and farms of known rebels and suspected supporters. In the 1820s, settlers of American origin were also denied political rights, including the choice to swear allegiance to the Crown. (See: The Early American Republic and the 1837–38 Canadian Rebellions.) Over 800 people were arrested after the rebellion for being Reform sympathisers. Rolph and Morrison were reluctant about the plan so Mackenzie sought Anthony Van Egmond to help lead the armed forces. Mackenzie went to the United States mainland where he was arrested for violating the Neutrality Act.[69]. Instead, they decided to wait for Anthony Van Egmond to lead the rebellion into Toronto. [71] Van Egmond died of an illness he acquired while imprisoned[72] while Lount and Peter Matthews were sentenced to the gallows for leading the rebellion. [51], A few hours later Rolph sent a messenger to Mackenzie that Toronto rebels were ready for their arrival to the city and Mackenzie marched his troops towards Toronto. The rebellions of 1837–38. The rebellion of lower Canada ended when upper & lower cananda became one due to the government wanting one country not two halves. Sir Francis Bond Head, the new lieutenant-governor, was sent to Upper Canada to appease the reformers in the Assembly. Answer Save. the colony and used political office and influence to further their own business interests. "[6] Members of the Family Compact utilized their official positions for monetary gain, especially through corporations such as the Bank of Upper Canada, and the two land companies (the Clergy Corporation and the Canada Company) that between them controlled two-sevenths of the land in the province. [62], The government forces also split into two companies when the rebels fired upon them. As a rare instance of armed insurgency in British North America, the 1837 Rebellion in what is now Ontario allows insight into the thinking and aspirations of early settlers. The British government was concerned about the rebellion, especially in light of the strong popular support for the rebels in the United States and the Lower Canada Rebellion. In their fear and confusion, they turned and ran. [27], On October 9 1837, a messenger from the Patriotes informed Mackenzie that the rebellion in Lower Canada was going to begin. In 1837, however, Mackenzie was emboldened by the insurgency in Lower Canada and the transfer of all British troops there from Upper Canada. [28] Mackenzie gathered reformers at John Doel's brewery and proposed kidnapping Bond Head, bringing him to city hall and forcing him to let the Legislature choose the members of the Executive Council. If the farmer refused to come to court in Toronto, they would automatically forfeit the case and their property subjected to a sheriff's sale. County boundaries existed -- however administration, courts and other civil functions were managed at the District level much like counties are now. The Upper Canada Rebellion is sometimes dismissed as a "farmers' revolt," an opportunistic action by misled backwoodsmen. government. At this point only 200 men at Montgomery's Tavern were armed. It recommended that the Canadas be united into one colony. However, its leaders, including William Lyon Mackenzie, were equally serious in their demands. [44] Another horseman saw the rebel's march into Toronto and notified Fitzgibbon, who tried unsuccessfully to have officials take action. Bond Head then refused to pass any legislation from that government session including major public works projects. and moderate reformers such as Robert Baldwin, were defeated. During the 1830s, a third of the bank's board were Legislative or Executive Councillors, and the remainder all magistrates. This led to the introduction of what became known as responsible government. [13], Sir Francis Bond Head was appointed as Lieutenant-Governor and the Reform movement believed he would support their ideas. Mackenzie gathered reformers on July 28 and 31, 1837 to discuss their grievances with the government. See Answer. The rebels without arms were sent to the tavern with their prisoners. The Early American Republic and the 1837–38 Canadian Rebellions. [77], William Kilbourn stated that the removal of Radicals from Upper Canada politics, either through execution or their retreat to the United States, allowed the Clear Grits to be formed as a more moderate political force that had fewer disagreements with the Tories than the reformers. Political unrest developed in both Upper and Lower Canada soon after the War of 1812. The rebels continued their raids into Canada using the U.S. as a base of operations and, in cooperation with the U.S. Hunters' Lodges, dedicated themselves to the overthrow of British rule in Canada. the Durham Report. Wealthy ruling group who controlled Upper Canada. In Lower Canada it was mostly a call for independence in order to preserve the French way of life and to pursue Canadien financial interests. They suffered a series of crop failures and were subject to harsh debt-collection laws. There are many different factors that contributed to the 1873 rebellions of upper and lower Canada. [45], On December 4, Mackenzie and other rebels were patrolling the area and encountered Alderman John Powell (Canadian politician) and Archibald Macdonald (Canadian politician). A second confrontation took place a few days later near Brantford. They wanted democratic reform and an end to the rule of a privileged oligarchy. [7] Lacking the minimum capital needed to found the bank, the corporate leaders persuaded the government to subscribe for a quarter of its shares. One fifth of British immigrants to Upper Canada were impoverished and most immigrant farmers lacked the capital to pay for purchased land. Some of the causes were similar, rooted in the governing structure imposed by the 1791 constitution, while other causes developed from each colony’s particular character. He was wounded in an ensuing battle and taken to the tavern, where he died several hours later in severe pain. [21], On July 10, 1832, US President Andrew Jackson vetoed the bill for the refinancing of the Second Bank of the United States, causing a depression in the Anglo-American world. In Upper Canada alot of them were actually annexationists wanting to become part of the US (you have to remember at this point in history most Upper Canadians were either first or second generation Americans who came there after Lord Simcoe … Toronto,  [46] As they were approaching Montgomery's Tavern Powell mortally shot Anthony Anderson in the neck and escaped back to Toronto to report to Bond Head. It received a temporary surge in popularity as a result. [19] He appealed to the people's desire to maintain part of the British Empire and a paternalistic attitude of the Crown providing goods for the people. They mounted major raids at Pelee Island in Lake Erie in February, at Short Hills in June, at  In the 1860s, some of the former rebels were compensated by the Canadian government for their lost property in the rebellion aftermath. more moderate lines. After the rebellions, Both Papineau and Mckenzie fled to the United States, leaving their follower rebels to face their punishments. As a member of the Legislative Assembly, [36], Bond Head did not believe the reports that stated the severity of resources and discontent gathered by the rebels. The revolt in Lower Canada was the more serious and violent of the two. [9], The government of Upper Canada feared a growing interest in American-inspired republicanism in the province because of the increase in immigration of American settlers to the province. Many were non-conformist in their religious views and somewhat republican in their political leanings.) [12] The Canadian Alliance Society was reborn as the Constitutional Reform Society in 1836, and led by the more moderate reformer, Dr William W. Baldwin. [64], News of the intended rebellion had reached London and the surrounding townships by December 7. leaders, such as Robert Baldwin, to reshape the reform movement along Bond Head was recalled in late 1837 and replaced with Sir George Arthur who arrived in Toronto in March 1838. Give the province of Canada responsible Government. After the War of 1812, there was growing discontent in Upper Canada with the elite clique of politicians and officials known as the Family Compact. Sir Francis Bond Head and the rash behaviour of William Lyon Mackenzie. The Upper Canada Rebellion was an insurrection against the oligarchic government of the British colony of Upper Canada (present-day Ontario) in December 1837. 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