## differential amplifier in biomedical instrumentation

If the difference between these voltages is amplified using a differential amplifier such as that shown in Figure 15.27, the output voltage will be the difference between the two voltages and reflect the force applied. The 50Hz noise, however, is common to all the electrodes. For a given input impedance Rs, the total amplifier noise is given by: Noise is specified over a given bandwidth, and is usually given in terms of V√Hz for voltage noise and amperes/√hertz for current noise. There are two input terminals, labeled ( ) input, and (+) input. The offset voltage is multiplied by the gain along with the signal of interest and can be a significant source of measurement error. Current mirrors are designed with low input impedance to minimize input voltage variations; they provide high output impedance to reduce variations caused by the load. The inverting gain equation (Eq. ECE 445: Biomedical Instrumentation Biopotential Amplifiers. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Because the noise from the current source is converted into voltage by the source impedance, it also ultimately appears as voltage noise. Because it only amplifies the differential portion of the input signal, it rejects the common-mode portion of the input signal. The op amp input voltage resulting from the input source, V1, is calculated in Equations 2.17 and 2.18. Bioinstrumentation Biopotential amplifiers, Medical Instrumentation, Block diagram of an electrocardiograph., pdf file: Biomedical instrumentation a practical course covering the principles and practice of biomedical instrumentation. Some of the key parameters for differential amplifiers are: Differential gain is the gain by which the amplifier boosts the difference of the input signals. Figure 7.7. A differential amplifier circuit with high input impedance. Comparator. Additional characteristics include very low DC offset, low drift, low noise, very high open-loop gain, very high common-mode rejection ratio, … The voltage divider rule is used to calculate the voltage, V+, and the noninverting gain equation (Eq. Differential Amplifiers. This is commonly specified in terms of a gain-bandwidth product (GBP). Although particularly important to the differential amplifier, the common-mode rejection ratio is a fairly general quality parameter used in most amplifier specifications. The job of the amplifier is to amplify this small differential signal while rejecting the large common-mode signal. However, the common-mode signal is also amplified to some extent. This intimidating circuit is constructed from a buffered differential amplifier stage with three new resistors linking the two buffer circuits together. Ans : (b) 17. The voltage divider rule is used to calculate the voltage, V+, and the non-inverting gain equation (Equation 2.18) is used to calculate the non-inverting output voltage, VOUT1. The schematic below shows a basic instrumentation amplifier consisting of three opamps and various resistors. Superposition is used to calculate the output voltage resulting from each input voltage, then the two output voltages are added to arrive at the final output voltage. Superposition is used to calculate the output voltage resulting from each input voltage, and then the two output voltages are added to arrive at the final output voltage. The ability of a given amplifier to ignore the average of the two input signals is called the common mode rejection ratio, or CMRR. To increase or decrease the gain it is necessary to change two resistors simultaneously: either both R1's or both R2's. 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